Skip to main content Link Menu Expand (external link) Document Search Copy Copied


Defined in header <cuda/annotated_ptr>:

namespace cuda {
template <typename Type, typename Property>
class annotated_ptr<Type, Property>;
} // namespace cuda

Mandates: Property is one of:

Note: if Property is [cuda::access_property], i.e. a dynamic property with a runtime value, then sizeof(cuda::annotated_ptr<Type, cuda::access_property>) == 2 * sizeof(Type*). Otherwise, its size is sizeof(Type*).

The class template cuda::annotated_ptr is a pointer annotated with an access property that may be applied to memory operations performed through the cuda::annotated_ptr.

In contrast with cuda::associate_access_property, cuda::annotated_ptr maintains the association when passed through ABI boundaries, e.g., calling a non-inlined library function with a cuda::annotated_ptr argument.

It implements a pointer-like interface:

Pointer Expression cuda::annotated_ptr<T, P> Description
T* a cuda::annotated_ptr<T, P> a non-const pointer to non-const memory
T const * a cuda::annotated_ptr<T const, P> a non-const pointer to const memory
T* const a const cuda::annotated_ptr<T, P> a const pointer to non-const memory
T const* const a const cuda::annotated_ptr<T const, P> a const pointer to const memory
val = *a; val = *a; dereference operator to load an element
*a = val; *a = val; dereference operator to store an element
val = a[n]; val = a[n]; subscript operator to load an element
a[n] = val; a[n] = val; subscript operator to store an element
T* a = nullptr; annotated_ptr<T, P> a = nullptr; nullptr initialization
n = a - b; n = a - b; difference operator
if (a) { ... } if (a) { ... } explicit bool conversion

But it is not a drop-in replacement for pointers since, among others, it does not:

namespace cuda {

template<class Type, class Property>
class annotated_ptr {
  using value_type = Type;
  using size_type = std::size_t;
  using reference = value_type &;
  using pointer = value_type *;
  using const_pointer = value_type const *;
  using difference_type = std::ptrdiff_t;

  __host__ __device__ constexpr annotated_ptr() noexcept;
  __host__ __device__ constexpr annotated_ptr(annotated_ptr const&) noexcept = default;
  __host__ __device__ constexpr annotated_ptr& operator=(annotated_ptr const&) noexcept = default;
  __host__ __device__ explicit annotated_ptr(pointer);
  template <class RuntimeProperty>
  __host__ __device__ annotated_ptr(pointer, RuntimeProperty);
  template <class T, class P>
  __host__ __device__ annotated_ptr(annotated_ptr<T,P> const&);

  __host__ __device__ constexpr explicit operator bool() const noexcept;
  __host__ __device__ pointer get() const noexcept;

  __host__ __device__ reference operator*() const;
  __host__ __device__ pointer operator->() const;
  __host__ __device__ reference operator[](std::ptrdiff_t) const;
  __host__ __device__ constexpr difference_type operator-(annotated_ptr);

  pointer ptr;   // exposition only
  Property prop; // exposition only

} // namespace cuda

Constructors and assignment

Default constructor

constexpr annotated_ptr() noexcept;

Effects:  as if constructed by annotated_ptr(nullptr);

Constructor from pointer

constexpr explicit annotated_ptr(pointer ptr);


Effects:  Constructs an annotated_ptr requesting associating ptr with Property. If Property is [cuda::access_property] then prop is initialized with cuda::access_property::global.

Note: in Preconditions “valid” means that casting the generic pointer to the corresponding address space does not introduce undefined behavior.

Constructor from pointer and access property

template <class RuntimeProperty>
annotated_ptr(pointer ptr, RuntimeProperty prop);


Preconditions: ptr is a pointer to a valid allocation in the global memory address space.

Effects:  Constructs an annotated_ptr requesting the association of ptr with the property prop.

Copy constructor from a different annotated_ptr

template <class T, class P>
constexpr annotated_ptr(annotated_ptr<T,P> const& a);


  • annotated_ptr<Type, Property>::pointer is assignable from annotated_ptr<T, P>::pointer.
  • Property is either [cuda::access_property] or P.
  • Property and P specify the same memory space.

Preconditions: pointer is compatible with Property.

Effects: Constructs an annotated_ptr for the same pointer as the input annotated_ptr.

Explicit conversion operator to bool

constexpr operator bool() const noexcept;

Returns: false if the pointer is a nullptr, true otherwise.

Raw pointer access

pointer get() const noexcept;

Returns: A pointer derived from the annotated_ptr.



reference operator*() const;

Preconditions: The annotated_ptr is not null and points to a valid T value.

Returns: *cuda::associate_access_property(ptr, prop)


pointer operator->() const;

Preconditions: the annotated_ptr is not null.

Returns: cuda::associate_access_property(ptr, prop)


reference operator[](ptrdiff_t i) const;

Preconditions: ptr points to a valid allocation of at least size [ptr, ptr+i].

Returns: *cuda::associate_access_property(ptr+i,prop)

Pointer distance

constexpr difference_type operator-(annotated_ptr p) const;

Preconditions: ptr and p point to the same allocation.

Returns: as-if get() - p.get().


Given three input and output vectors x, y, and z, and two arrays of coefficients a and b, all of length N:

size_t N;
int* x, *y, *z;
int* a, *b;

the grid-strided kernel:

__global__ void update(int* const x, int const* const a, int const* const b, size_t N) {
    auto g = cooperative_groups::this_grid();
    for (int i = g.thread_rank(); idx < N; idx += g.size()) {
        x[i] = a[i] * x[i] + b[i];

updates x, y, and z as follows:

update<<<grid, block>>>(x, a, b, N);
update<<<grid, block>>>(y, a, b, N);
update<<<grid, block>>>(z, a, b, N);

The elements of a and b are used in all kernels. If N is large enough, elements of a and b might be evicted from the L2 cache, requiring these to be re-loaded from memory in the next update.

We can make the update kernel generic to allow the caller to pass cuda::annotated_ptr objects that hint at how memory will be accessed:

template <typename PointerX, typename PointerA, typename PointerB>
__global__ void update_template(PointerX x, PointerA a, PointerB b, size_t N) {
    auto g = cooperative_groups::this_grid();
    for (int idx = g.thread_rank(); idx < N; idx += g.size()) {
        x[idx] = a[idx] * x[idx] + b[idx];

With cuda::annotated_ptr, the caller can then specify the temporal locality of the memory accesses:

// Frequent accesses to "a" and "b"; infrequent accesses to "x" and "y":
cuda::annotated_ptr<int const, cuda::access_property::persisting> a_p {a}, b_p{b};
cuda::annotated_ptr<int, cuda::access_property::streaming> x_s{x}, y_s{y};
update_template<<<grid, block>>>(x_s, a_p, b_p, N);
update_template<<<grid, block>>>(y_s, a_p, b_p, N);

// Infrequent accesses to "a" and "b"; frequent acceses to "z":
cuda::annotated_ptr<int const, cuda::access_property::streaming> a_s {a}, b_s{b};
cuda::annotated_ptr<int, cuda::access_property::persisting> z_p{z};
update_template<<<grid, block>>>(z_p, a_s, b_s, N);

// Different kernel, "update_z", uses "z" again one last time.
// Since "z" was accessed as "persisting" by the previous kernel,
// parts of it are more likely to have previously survived in the L2 cache.
update_z<<<grid, block>>>(z, ...);

Notice how the raw pointers to a and b can be wrapped by both annotated_ptr<T, persistent> and annotated_ptr<T, streaming>, and accesses through each pointer applies the corresponding access property.